Wednesday, March 18, 2020
How we can get more women in NASA Ã¢â¬Å"In 1935, the first group of female human computers were hired. Before electronic computers, all mathematical equations and computations would be done by hand by people, often known as human computers. With the advent of World War II, many male employees at NACA left to fight overseas. More and more women were needed to fill their roles, and soon African American women were hired to help with the shortfall.Ã¢â¬ (Howat). In 1964 Jeanette Scissum joined NasaÃ¢â¬â¢s team in Marshall Space Flight Center as the first African-American woman. She was a mathematician who co-wrote a computer program and benefitted NASA and helped to Ã¢â¬Å"predict where the Apollo lunar module should land, and publishing a report that proposed new techniques to improve the forecasting of a sunspot cycle, spots on the outer shell of the sun that temporarily appear darker than the surrounding areasÃ¢â¬ (artsandculture.google.) Kathyrn Peddrew graduated in 1943, she tried to apply at another compan y but could not get in because they did not accept women positions. She then later got accepted at NASA, but still had to work in a segregated work area because she was black. Mary Jackson became the first female black engineer to work at NASA, she worked towards improving the aerodynamics in airplanes. She then went on to Ã¢â¬Å"achieving the most senior title within the engineering department, she took a demotion in order to work in the Equal Opportunity Specialist field, to make changes, support and highlight women and other minorities in the fieldÃ¢â¬ (artsandculture.google.) Or in more recent news Katie Bouman was the woman behind discovering the algorithm of the black hole photo. The list of women in NASA goes on and on for numerous reasons. However Ã¢â¬Å"the percentage of women who work in NASA today is 37%Ã¢â¬ said by NASA associate administrator Lori Garver, who also wants to expand on women working in NASA. The core of women joining NASA and getting into the STEM pro gram is important for women to recognize and contribute to. According to Moira Forbes the key elements to achieve this traveling to schools in a women STEM program to encourage young women to join STEM, and three main points to success is to Bust the math myth, spark curiosity, and recognize the role of role modeling (Forbes). The Ã¢â¬Å"math mythÃ¢â¬ is a myth that depicts women or females to be naturally non-talented at math, and naturally better at subjects like English. This myth discourages young women that they cannot be in any mathematical majors because they simply arenÃ¢â¬â¢t good at the subject. There are many examples and studies to prove that myth wrong such as this article, where it states Ã¢â¬Å"A study of how both men and women perceive each others mathematical ability finds that an unconscious bias against women could be skewing hiring decisions, widening the gender gap in mathematical professions like engineering. The inspiration for the experiment was a 2008 study published in Science that analyzed the results of a standardized test of math and verbal abilities taken by 15-year-olds around the world. The results challenged the pernicious stereotype that females are biologically inferior at mathematics. Although the female test-takers lagged behind males on the math portion of the test, the size of the gap closely tracked the degree of gender inequality in their countries, shrinking to nearly zero in emancipated countries like Sweden and Norway. That suggests that cultural biases rather than biology may be the better explanation for the math gender gap.Ã¢â¬ (Bohannon). Or as Albert Einstein once said Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.Ã¢â¬ This myth also includes that you have to be good at math in the first place to initially be a part of STEM, which is required by NASA. STEM, how ever, isnt just math based. STEM stands for Ã¢â¬Å"science, technology, engineering and mathÃ¢â¬ which only embodies one-fourth of the math input, so why is it a common mistake to think that STEM is only math associated. To be in NASA doesnt just mean computer science, there is a wide number of jobs that vary even outside of STEM itself. A factor that contributes to the math myth but also reconciles on its own would be that being an astronaut or part of science, or NASA as a whole is a Ã¢â¬Å"mans jobÃ¢â¬ or not feminine. Or something as simple as it doesnt interest females, just like stereotypical sayings like Ã¢â¬Å"women like English, not mathÃ¢â¬ , which was obviously wrong. Going into schools and talking to everyone, making sure both girls and boys are inclusive about learning about NASA careers and employment, can spark curiosity into girls, and make them interested in the subject and ultimately a career choice. This is a very promising way because women are often told in society what they should be interested in, but by only offering information and sparking curiosity into them, it helps contribute to having NASA careers as an option. While also holding important information that tells them the increase in women and how far theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve come in NASA to motivate their curiosity Ã¢â¬Å"Women have been an integral part of NACA/NASA operations since 1922. They have played important roles such as mathematician, computer, astronaut, engineer, and supervisors. They have made lasting impacts and helped land a man on the moon. As of 2012, women made up one-third of all employees including 30% of supervisors and 20% of engineers. As of 2017, 37% of new hires are female and 50% of the newest class of astronauts were women. While these numbers may sound small, this is a significant increase in female employees at NASA compared to the last few decades.Ã¢â¬ (Howat) Showing the numbers and improvement over the years can make spark questioning and researching, valuing, or become more invested in the outcome. Showing and proving role models for women is important because throughout history the hierarchy for social classes indicate that women were at the very bottom of the system. Which didnt just happen in one society, but almost all of them. And in this day and era, when seeing a role model to young girls and then comparing it to previous areas of time, we are astonished, because women never got to experience it. The way to approach this matter would be to recognize that Ã¢â¬Å"The lack of visible female role models continues to be a major problem. In my opinion, though, the real problem is that the women working within STEM are hiding in plain sight. One way to overcome this would be to spotlight examples of actual women succeeding in STEM which could inspire young women by giving them real-world examples to model themselves after. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to highlight that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not necessary to be a multimillionaire corporate celebrity to have an impact in STEM.Ã¢â¬ - (Emily Muggleton). If we introduce the hundreds of females whoÃ¢â¬â¢ve worked at NASA and how committed and wonderful they are at their job, and how theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve accidentally comabtted against men to achieve what theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve achieved, other young women may start seeing themselves in their shoes and want to be such just like. There was a study conducted to see how influenced a classroom was when a strong female role-model was talking to the class on economics. They found that Ã¢â¬Å"The effect of strong female role models was even stronger among high-performing female students who had a grade point average of 3.7 or higher. For them, researchers saw a 26 percentage point increase in enrollment in the next-level economics class. Having career women speak in front of the class had no effect on male students. This suggests a lot of things: Perhaps it may mean that male students already enjoy enough role models in economics, or that male students dont see women as role models.Ã¢â¬ (IKE M) and it concluded and confirmed the idea that Ã¢â¬Å"female students are more likely to enroll in an upper-level economics class if they have encountered successful women role models in that field.Ã¢â¬ (IKEM). But names wont do it alone, you would need to explain and examine the roles those women took in a male-dominated atmosphere and how they achieved what they achieved. Such as how they contributed to the aspects of science, math, engineering, astronauts, and many, many more career choices. Overall, women are in high demand for STEM roles, and the more contribution towards encouraging young women to chose that path, the more they can contribute to the world. STEM is dominated by men, scientifically speaking women and men tend to think differently. So speaking from that point of view, we would get perspectives from a whole other eye, as women can expand and breech what they never couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve in the past, now there is nothing holding them back. So, its important as a society to recognize that women were put in educating organizations for centuries, and over the years theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve done wonders for demonstrating the ability to teach. With that same mindset, if we put women into STEM and NASA imagine the kind of wonders they would do for those organizations. citation Ikem, Chinelo Nkechi. Ã¢â¬Å"The Importance of Female Role Models in the Classroom.Ã¢â¬ Ã Pacific Standard, 30 Jan. 2018, psmag.com/education/the-importance-of-female-role-models-in-the-classroom. Ã¢â¬Å"15 Game-Changing Women of NASA Google Arts Culture.Ã¢â¬ Ã Google, Google, artsandculture.google.com/theme/PAKinN4pTOJg. Forbes, Moira. Ã¢â¬Å"How To Inspire More Young Women To Enter STEM In 2018.Ã¢â¬ Ã Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 5 Jan. 2018, forbes.com/sites/moiraforbes/2018/01/04/how-to-inspire-more-young-women-to-enter-stem-in-2018/#37e7336c1cd7. Moskowitz, Clara. Ã¢â¬Å"NASA Needs More Women, Top Official Says.Ã¢â¬ Ã Space.com, Space Created with Sketch. Space, 30 July 2013, space.com/22175-nasa-needs-women-sally-ride.html. Ã¢â¬Å"The Women of NASA.Ã¢â¬ Ã National Womens History Museum, womenshistory.org/exhibits/women-nasa. BohannonMar, John, et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Both Genders Think Women Are Bad at Basic Math.Ã¢â¬ Ã Science, 10 Dec. 2017, sciencemag.org/news/2014/03/both-genders-think-women-are-bad-basic-math.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Definition of a Non-Traditional Student On many campuses, the majority of students are nontraditional students. What does that mean? Who are they? Nontraditional students are 25 and older and have returned to school to earn a degree, an advanced degree, a professional certificate, or a GED. Many are lifelong learners who know that keeping their brains engaged keeps them young and vibrant longer. Experts have suggested that continuing to learn can even help prevent Alzheimers disease. Besides, learning is just plain fun when you are willing to dabble a bit. Consider taking a workshop on a regular basis. Nontraditional students are not your 18-year-old high-school graduates heading off to college. Were talking about adults who decide to go back to school after the traditional college age of 18-24. Were even talking about Baby Boomers. They are some of the most avid nontraditional students, and they are now in their 50s, 60s, and 70s! Nontraditional students are also known as adult students, adult learners, lifelong learners, older students, old geezers (just kidding) Alternate Spellings: non traditional student, non-traditional student Examples: Baby boomers, people born in the years between 1946 and 1964, are flocking back to school to finish degrees or earn new ones. These nontraditional students now have the life experience and financial stability to make college more meaningful. Going back to school as a nontraditional student can be more challenging than it is for younger students for many reasons, but primarily because they have established lives that require balancing one more responsibility. Many have families, careers, and hobbies. Throw in a dog or two, maybe a Little League game, and the addition of college classes and required study time can be tremendously stressful. For this reason, many nontraditional students choose online programs, which allows them to juggle work, life, and school. Resources How to Ace Your Grad School Interview After Taking Time Off - College applications are written primarily for 18-year-olds. When you older than that, sometimes by decades, the questions can seem silly. Or maybe you have a gap in your resume that needs explaining. These tips are for you.Ways to Stay Relevant Before Earning Your Masters Degree - When you need to take some time off from school, its important to maintain your readiness to return. Its not all that hard with a little attention.Tips to Help You Rock Your Online Courses - More and more people are going back to school online. Something that was once frowned upon, is now safe, credible, and super convenient. Attend class anywhere you can take a laptop or other device. Thats just about everywhere.Time Management Tips for Adult Students - Managing your time well is crucial for nontraditional students. Weve got tips for you.Places to Get a Scholarship - Scholarships abound. You just have to know where to look for them. Dont be afr aid to apply. Many scholarships are awarded by default to the few people who bothered to submit an application. Be one of them. Help with Writing - Brush up on your writing skills to avoid embarrassment.Help with Math - Math is a major reason people procrastinate about going back to school. Help is out there.Facts About Financial Aid - Money for college is available to almost everyone. Find out how to apply for financial help. Thats just a sampling. We have lots of tips for you. Browse around and be inspired. Before you know it, youll be back in the classroom, whether its in a traditional brick building, on the Internet, or at a local community ed. workshop. Dabble!
Saturday, February 15, 2020
The Crusades Saladin - Research Paper Example The paper "The Crusades Saladin" discusses The Crusades Saladin. Besides heavy casualties, the expeditions influenced its participants in their various aspects of life to adopt new mannerisms, foods, cultural outlooks, learning, and weapons. The Born Ã¡ ¹ ¢alÃ Ã¡ ¸ ¥ al-DÃ «n YÃ «suf ibn AyyÃ «b in 1138, Saladin emerged as a powerful and most influential Muslim sultan of his time. During his reign, Saladin led troops in wars geared at regaining holy lands such as Jerusalem, which were lost during earlier battles. This was achieved by conquering and unifying warring factions before defeating King Richard I of England in the Third crusade. As such, Saladin is regarded as a great leader for his role in uniting and leading the Muslim world into crusades such as the battle of Hattin through to the Third Crusade. This paper illustrates the life of Ã¡ ¹ ¢alÃ Ã¡ ¸ ¥ al-DÃ «n YÃ «suf ibn AyyÃ «b with regard to his rise to power, leadership, and crusades. SaladinÃ¢â¬â¢s heritage is subject to debate among historians who fail in consensus on his paternal family origins. Some describe him as a Kurd while others illustrate an Arab and Turkish ancestry. SaladinÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub was a warden at Tikrit fortress after rising in prominence as a wealthy Kurdish chief and a noble Muslim before Saladin was born. For this reason, Ayyub developed administrative skills that made him useful to the then ruler. Tikrit was a significant city as a scholars centre to both Christians and Muslims. The thirst for power and wealth saw Ayyub assist a rival leader.... However, the thirst for power and wealth saw Ayyub assist a rival leader, Imad ad-Din Zangi Lord of Mosul, after his defeat by offering them refuge in Tikrit. Similarly, Shirkuh, SaladinÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle was accused of murder, which forced Ayyub and his family to flee with his family on the same night the Saladin was born (Nicolle 10). In 1139, Saladin's family moved to Mosul where Zangi received them and proceeded to appoint Ayyub as the commander of his fortress in Baalbek, Syria as acknowledgement of his help. Saladin spent most of his early life in Baalbek following his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s military career, which would later play a critical role in nurturing his leadership skills. SaladinÃ¢â¬â¢s early childhood education focused on religion, ethics, and culture, which involved learning Arabic, poetry, grammar, and formal prayers (Burhan). In addition, Saladin studied the Koran and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad as demanded in accordance to Islamic traditions. Over time, he was mai nly interested in learning Islamic principles concerning Christians and Jews owing to the prevalent barbaric crusades in Jerusalem. This interest can also be attributed to the day he was born as his family was exiled following the murder of a Christian by his uncle. Saladin failed to understand how Islam called for noble treatment of Christians and Jews even as they were involved in massacres in Jerusalem, in the name of crusades. In spite of the controversy surrounding the ill treatment of Muslims by Christians, Saladin was guided by Sufism, which sought for a higher spiritual life and closer intimacy with God. With great influences such as his father and uncle, Saladin grew up in a cultured environment of Damascus where he completed his education. It is indicated that Saladin got
Sunday, February 2, 2020
The Legacy Admissions - Essay Example The first argument in favor of legacy admissions raised by Thomas and Shepard (2008) has been that if a student inside a state is given preference in admission to an educational institution inside the state, just because his family pays the taxes that sustain the institution, on the same logic, it can be argued that legacy preferences are permissible (p.221). But is the payment of taxes which is obligatory for all citizens and which cannot be skipped even if your student does not get an admission in a college inside your state, comparable to the payment of a donation for a legacy admission? This is the million dollar question here. It is common sense that the element of choice is present only in the case of a legacy admission and the tax payer has no such choice. And also the payment of taxes makes it obligatory for the state to take care of the tax payersÃ¢â¬â¢ welfare. Further, even a student from an affluent family has the same right as his/her family is also paying tax. Hence, though convincing on first encounter, it can be seen that the comparison is flawed. And it is to this aspect that Megalli (2008) is also drawing attention to, when she pointed out, with supportive evidence, this practice will eventually lead to discrimination (p.230). And the evidence has also shown that Ã¢â¬Å"96 percent of all living Ivy League alumni are whiteÃ¢â¬ (Megalli, 2008, p.230).Ã Ã The second major case in the article of Thomas and Shepard (2008) that legacy admissions amount to only a very small percentage of total admissions has also been contested by Megalli (2008) with the support of factual data. But while Thomas and Shepard (2008) have pointed out the comparatively less number of institutions where competition is so high that legacy admissions matter (p.222), Megalli (2008) has made a comparison between the percentage of all applications accepted and the percentage of legacy applications accepted in various ducational institutions and shown a disparity is t here (p.230). But both these sets of figures represent only convenient manipulation and partial presentation of data to support oneÃ¢â¬â¢s argument.
Friday, January 24, 2020
Human Insecurity in T.S Eliot's The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock T.S Eliot's The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock is an examination of human insecurity and folly, embodied in the title's J. Alfred Prufrock. Eliot's story of a man's "overwhelming question", his inability to ask it, and consequently, his mental rejection plays off the poem's many ambiguities, both structural and literal. Eliot uses these uncertainties to develop both the plot of the poem and the character of J. Alfred Prufrock. The poem's setting is one that conjures up images of vagueness. It is filled with "yellow fog" and "yellow smoke", both of which suggest a certain denseness and haziness. Similarly, Prufrock is faced with another kind of mist - "perfume from a dress (65) that sends him back into his spiral of insecurity. The importance of Prufrock's "overwhelming question" (presumably, proposing to a woman) is placed alongside items such as "tea and cakes and ices (79)" and various other trivialities such as novels, teacups, marmalade and "skirts that trail across the floor(102)". Prufrock's inner, mental world of thoughts and questions is divided from his outer, physical world which is composed of material objects; it is ironic then, that the material world inside the room is the one that is hidden by "...yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window panes/The yellow smoke that rubs its muzzle on the window pane (15-16)". Prufrock is trapped in this artificial world, however he is too afraid to escape - he asks himself if he dares "to disturb the universe"; and apparently, he doesn't. The poem is also ambiguous regarding the identity of Prufrock's audience. Prufrock refers clearly to a "you and I" in the first stanzas of the poem but later... ... he feels uncomfortable with Hamlet's "Prince" and the qualities associated with it. J. Alfred Prufrock is a tragic figure in his own right; indecision being his tragic flaw. Eliot's character is a compelling portrait of insecurity, trapped in a rigid and materialistic environment by his own doubts and fears and unable to reconcile his desires with his actions. Works Cited and Consulted Eliot, T. S.. "The Love Song of Alfred J. Prufrock." Making Literature Matter: An Anthology for Readers and Writers. 2nd Ed. Schlib & Clifford. Boston: Bedford, 2003. 851-855. Pinion, F. B. A T.S. Eliot Companion. Totowa: Barnes & Noble Books, 1986. Sharma, Jitendra Kumar. Time & T.S. Eliot: His Poetry, Plays, and Philosophy. New York: Apt Books, INC. 1985. Spurr, David. Conflicts in Consciousness: T.S. EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Poetry & Criticism. Urbana: U of Illinois P. 1984.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Although written in two distinct eras, The Aeneid and The Iliad offer views of the Trojan War, which have been studied for centuries.Ã The Iliad, written by Homer in 750-650 BCE, portrays the tale from the Greek point of view.Ã Sometimes thought to have been a mythic person himself, the telling of The Iliad is attributed to him nonetheless.Ã The story, written originally in ancient Greek, speaks from an omniscient narrator who can share all details encountered in the main character, Achilles, involvement in the war. Achilles has refused to fight in retribution for Agamemnon stealing his war prize, Briseis.Ã The Aeneid, on the other hand, is known to have come from the Roman poet, Virgil.Ã Although the main character, Aeneas, tells portions of the story, Virgil himself narrates the majority of the tale.Ã Aeneas is traveling to Italy to build a race of Romans.Ã Juno, who is still angry with the Trojans, sets Aeneas off course and the story begins with a recounting of the war itself. In the way the tales themselves offer varying illuminations on the same setting in Greece, the Gods portrayed share differing characteristics.Ã In The Iliad, Zeus stands as the king of the Gods.Ã He refuses to take sides in this war of men, although his favor moves to the Trojan side after AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ mother begs him to intervene.Ã We find Zeus bothered by the request.Ã He is involved with domestic disputes already with his wife, Hera, and is reluctant to do any further damage to his solitude.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Here is trouble.Ã You drive me into open war with Hera sooner or later: she will be at me, scolding all day long. Even as matters stand she never rests from badgering me before the gods: I take the Trojan side in battle, so she says,Ã¢â¬ (Homer, I.593-599).Ã He does go on to promise he will do as she has asked, although the reader can sense his foreboding in doing so.Ã His foresight is strong though, as HeraÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction is as he said it would be Ã¢â¬â biting and harsh. Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Who is it this time, schemer?Ã Who has your ear?Ã How fond are you of secret plans, of taking decisions privately,Ã¢â¬ (Homer, I.620-622).Ã Zeus is portrayed as a beaten God, one who is verbally assaulted by his own wife and appears to be weary of her scorn. One can sense the laughter as the words are written, the hidden personalities that are so similar to common man. Jupiter, however, does not worry over what he will go through personally in order to grant the wish of the goddess who has appealed to him. Ã Ã¢â¬Å"With the serenity that calms the weather, and lightly kissed his daughter.Ã Then he said: No need to be afraid, Cytherea.Ã Your childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s destiny has not been changed,Ã¢â¬ (Virgil, I.345-348).Ã Jupiter has granted what she sought, and promises that her progeny will found the great kingdom of Rome, named after one of the twin sons to come from Aeneas. Ã The reader can already discern favoritism for the Romans by this issuance of Jupiter.Ã He is not a hen-pecked God as Zeus is, although JupiterÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is not a timid creature.Ã Much like Hera, she is vastly upset and carried a grave distaste for the Trojans.Ã Jupiter, however, feels Juno will eventually relax.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Juno, indeed, whose bitterness now fills with fear and torment sea and earth and sky, will mend her ways, and favor them as I do, Lords of the World, the toga-bearing Romans,Ã¢â¬ (Virgil, I.376-379). The reader gets the sense that the Greek Gods as told of by Homer are seen as folly.Ã Zeus is not the almighty master, as one would suspect the king of the Gods to be.Ã He is stuck between caring for his subjects, the minor Gods, and listening to the gripes and complaints of his wife, the telling is almost comical.Ã Virgil, however, tells the origination of a great race of people, his own Romans.Ã The Jupiter is patient and assured of the greatness to come.Ã His caring ways with his daughter and sincere belief that all will be as he said indicate his power and greatness, showing him to be a true King of the Gods. The physical separation between God and mortal man is great.Ã In the eleventh book of The Iliad, we find Zeus directly interfering with the battle on hand.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Now Zeus, the son of Kronos roused an uproar along his host, and sprinkled bloody dew from highest heaven, being resolved that day to crowd great warriors in to the undergloom,Ã¢â¬ (Homer, XI,58-61).Ã The battle between Greek and Trojan forces allowed yet another display of ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ great power over man. Zeus demonstrates this power while protecting Hector. Ã¢â¬Å"Hector moved forward with his round-faced shield.Ã As from night clouds a baleful summer star will blaze into the clear, then fade in cloud, so Hector shone in front or became hidden when he harangued the rear ranks Ã¢â¬â his whole form in bronze aflash like lightening of father Zeus,Ã¢â¬ (Homer, XI.67-72).Ã The soldiers recognize the ability of Hector to shadow himself as the protection of the Gods.Ã ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ otherworldly display of power and support for the Trojan cause signifies the justness of their cause, yet as we already know, his might is not good enough.Ã Troy will lose the battle and the God is not all-powerful in the end. The Aeneid however, shows the true power and wisdom of Jupiter is not only just, but up to the task as well.Ã Aeneas will reach his destination, and Rome will become the great power it is meant to be.Ã Jupiter sees that Aeneas has fallen sedentary with his love for Dido and remains with her rather than fulfilling his duty as Jupiter told him.Ã Ã The scourge of the earth is not brought down on his head to force him off the island.Ã The all-powerful Jupiter simply sends a messenger, Mercury.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"From bright Mount Olympus he that rules the Gods and turns the earth and heaven by his power Ã¢â¬â he and no other sent me to you, told me to bring this message on the running winds: what have you in mind?Ã Ã¢â¬ ¦the land of Rome are due,Ã¢â¬ (Virgil, IV.365-375). Aeneas is reminded of his family fortune and honor, which are on the line.Ã True to his word and loyal to his God, Aeneas leaves Dido to fend for herself.Ã Her misery and subsequent suicide are not given any thought by Jupiter, the mission is at hand and the great Roman peoples are far more important than a single female.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Beating her lovely breast three times, four times, and tearing her golden hair, Ã¢â¬ËOh Jupiter! Ã¢â¬ ¦will this man go, will he have mocked my kingdom, stranger than he is and was,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Virgil, IV.816-820)?Ã Jupiter pays her no mind; the Roman Empire is at stake.Ã Again, it is in silent action, verbal mandates that Jupiter issues his power.Ã He is not forced to resort to mortal measures to ensure his will is done. Zeus is portrayed as the mover, the God who has to physically partake in things to get anything accomplished.Ã The stronger God of the two, Jupiter, simply asks and gets what he wants.Ã The fear of retribution is fierce amongst not only the people, but also the Gods.Ã He does not take pity on the fallen as Zeus does.Ã In terms of masculine strength, Jupiter is by far the strongest.Ã Of course, such an amazing group of warriors, philosophers and artisans could never have come from so slovenly a King as Zeus. As the war wages on in The Iliad, Zeus is once again shown to be a weaker form than the mighty Jupiter.Ã Achilles has lost his best friend, Patroclus, in battle. Heartbroken, he vows to return to the battle immediately to slay Hector in revenge.Ã Although Zeus has long since gone to help the Achaeans in fighting this war, Ã¢â¬Å"Zeus took pity on them, saying quickly to Athena: Daughter, you seem to have left your fighting man alone.Ã Should one suppose you care no more for Achilles?Ã The he sits, before the curving prows, and grieves for his dear friend. The other soldiers flock to meat; he thirsts and hungers.Ã Come, infuse him sweet nectar and ambrosia, that an empty belly may not weaken him,Ã¢â¬ (Homer, XIX.374-382). Athena then goes off to give the poor warriors some nourishment so they may fight bravely in their final battles.Ã His heart still belongs to the losing side.Ã We see his weakness again with the interference into the battle.Ã In calling the Gods to Mount Olympus, Zeus tells them, Ã¢â¬Å"You know what plan I have in mind and why I called you, why you are here. Men on both sides may perish, still they are near my heart.Ã And yet, by heaven, here I stay at ease upon a ridge.Ã IÃ¢â¬â¢ll have an ample view here.Ã But you others, go into action, side with the men of Troy or with Achaeans, as each has a mind to,Ã¢â¬ (Homer XX.22-29).Ã Zeus lazily tells the other Gods that the people are dying and it breaks his heart.Ã However, he will sit on the mountaintop and watch the spectacle.Ã They should go down and help whichever side they feel is just, but he will just watch.Ã Homer again makes fun of the God.Ã He is a couch potato during the war he was powerless to stop in the first place.Ã His wife is constantly meddling in the affairs of state, and Zeus will not step in to act according to his heart. Jupiter does not have this problem toward the end of The Aeneid.Ã When fighting has broken out in Italy and the great Romans are fighting amongst themselves, Jupiter is asked his opinion.Ã He responds in a regal and self-assured manner.Ã When he opens his mouth to speak, all of the earth responds in kind. Ã¢â¬Å"The almighty father then, chief power of the world, began to speak, and as he spoke the great halls of the Gods fell silent, and earth quaked, and silence reigned in the highest air, the west-winds went to rest, the deep sea stilled his waters to calm,Ã¢â¬ (Virgil, X.137-142).Ã He has decided that fate will serve each man his own plate.Ã Jupiter no longer condones divine intervention.Ã This surprises virtually everyone present, as they have interfered in these matters right from the start.Ã Yet, the King of the Gods has spoken and it cannot be any other way.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"He took oath nodding, making all Olympus tremble at his nod.Ã There was an end of speaking.Ã Jupiter form his golden throne arose, and lords of heaven on either hand escorted him to the threshold of his hall,Ã¢â¬ (Virgil, X.160-164). Although the King of the Gods in each depiction of the Trojan wars and its eventual outcomes acted in extremely different ways, the act remains that they were in control the entire time.Ã The main protagonists for each tale are not afforded this same luxury.Ã In The Iliad, Achilles never has control over his bloodlust for Agamemnon.Ã His search for glory and the switching of sides is beyond his control so to speak.Ã The usurping of his prize from the war damaged his pride and it is the sole driving force for him.Ã When his best friend is killed, he appears to have devised a higher purpose for his rage, yet the reader notes he is still guided for his own gratification throughout. Aeneas, blindly does as he is bid to do.Ã He leaves his heart behind when he leaves Dido on the island.Ã Jupiter is not concerned with the trivial matters before him, and concerns himself only with the Roman creation.Ã Aeneas cannot simply believe that Dido will eventually understand what he must do, unlike Jupiter feelings for Juno.Ã The foresight the Gods portray separate them greatly from humanity, making the people seem as though they are simply pieces of a chess game, there for the amusement of creatures bored with eternity. Although Homer pokes fun at the God from the past and uses the tale to tell of the heroism of the Greek people, he fails to place his own God at the forefront as a just and caring ruler.Ã Virgil at least shows the God of the Romans as one who delights in the magnificence of the race. Physically the gods are far superior to the men they control, but in the case of Zeus, he is far from being above the simple human frailty of emotion.Ã Homer instills a sense of commonality between the people and their God, one in which the playing field is an equal one.Ã The Gods are affected by this war almost as much as the people are.Ã When interfering in the matters of men, the Gods are shaken to the core in some instances, harmed in others, and heartbroken other times still. For Virgil, the people end on the positive note.Ã The great anti-hero is dead, and the true hero does not turn out to be Aeneas, but the Romans themselves.Ã The reader sees throughout the epic poem, that Virgil had them in mind all along.Ã The creation myth of the great empire seeks to solidify their place in the world and by showing that that creation came from a just and powerful authority Ã¢â¬â he accomplishes just that. Works Cited Homer.Ã The Iliad. Trs. Robert Fagles.Ã New York, NY: Penguin Classics, 1998. Virgil. The Aeneid. Trs. W.F. Jackson Knight. New York, NY: Penguin Classics, 2006.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Historically it is a common trend to associate some kind of ideology to radicalization. For example, in the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s and 60Ã¢â¬â¢s nationalism was associated with the freedom fighters liberating their lands from the colonizers and in the 80Ã¢â¬â¢s anti-communism was popular to describe all the rebels fighting against Russia. Currently, similar pattern is also seen where Ã¢â¬ËIslamismÃ¢â¬â¢ is directly associated with violent radicalization. However, the research participants unanimously rejected such a notion rather they asserted that socio-political situation creates condition of violent radicalism especially when people find no proper venues to channel their political or social grievances (whatever trifling these may be). 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